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African traditional religion (or ATR, also known as also referred to as African indigenous religions or African tribal religions) is a general, umbrella term for religious and spiritual establishments in Africa prior to the spread of Islam and Christianity on the continent. The reinstitutions of these religions in modified forms in other continents due to the various slave trades which sourced from Africa are known as African diasporic religions (or, in the most geopolitically-pronounced institution, Afro-American religion. Together, according to Adherents.com, Traditional and diasporic religions (ATDR) account for over 100 million adherents worldwide, even though adherence to ATDR does not preclude joint adherence to other major religions, namely Christianity and Islam; furthermore, due to the joint circumstances of slavery and colonization which were visited upon Africans, most such adherences have been influenced, to various extents, by the cultural paraphernalia of Christianity and Islam (a type of syncretism).

ATDRs in Africa mostly share close ties to the structure of African communities and ties to the homeland, while ATDRs in the Americas - particularly those with large populations of practitioners such as Haiti - possess a more-subdued (but highly-evident) bond with the roots of the community in Africa and the spirit world of the (mostly-African) ancestors. Like other ancestor-based religions outside of Africa and the African diaspora, such as Shinto and Hinduism, ATDRs do not possess central creeds or missions which the adherents must fulfill, but rely mostly on the maintenance of ritual, ancestral histories and fortune-telling. Finally, like Native American religions, ATDRs change their aspects in order to incorporate modernity and current circumstances within ancient contextual frameworks.

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